In antiquity a liquid material made from soot, gum arabic, and water, used for writing on papyrus. Since this kind of ink does not stick well to leather or parchment, scribes also employed ink made with tannic acid derived from nut galls (oak galls). These were pulverized and then mixed with sulfate of iron and water. Besides black ink, other colors of ink were sometimes used. Titles might be written with red ink, which was made from either cinnabar or miniam. Purple ink was made from a liquid secreted by two kinds of gastropods, the murex and the purpura. For deluxe parchment or vellum manuscripts, scribes occasionally employed silver and gold inks. The Bible refers to the use of ink in (Jer 36:18; 2Cor 3:3; 2John 1:12; and 3John 1:13).

Jer 36:18

18Baruch answered them, “He dictated all these words to me, and I wrote them with ink on the scroll.”

2Cor 3:3

3and you show that you are a letter of Christ, prepared by us, written not with ink but with the Spirit of the living God, not on tablets of stone but on tablet ... View more

2John 1:12

Final Greetings
12Although I have much to write to you, I would rather not use paper and ink; instead I hope to come to you and talk with you face to face, so t ... View more

3John 1:13

Final Greetings
13I have much to write to you, but I would rather not write with pen and ink;

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